The creation and provision of electricity is a system, as Nigeria in trying to fix its dysfunctional power sector illustrates. It has discovered that building new power stations is irrelevant if the transmission network is unable to evacuate this power. It matters little that these power stations exist if the energy carriers, largely gas in the case of Nigeria, are not in place to supply them. If the distribution networks are unable to manage losses, provide quality of supply and collect revenue, the system is broken. While electricity systems within themselves can and should be robust in contingency and optionality, this is not the case for these major components of the electricity sector, which is a system in series. If one part of this chain does not work, it will fail. This is fairly obvious.

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ESI1-2014