[img:ElecVe.thumbnail.jpg| ]By Dr Peter Harrop, chairman, IDTechEx
30 May 2013 - Virtually all autonomous underwater vehicles are electric for practical reasons – the internal combustion engine (ICE) is not a realistic option. Not so on the surface, where the ICE is the favoured means of propulsion. However, even here, there is now a strong move to hybrid and pure-electric drivetrains for many powerful reasons.
The rapidly growing US$2.6 billion market for marine electric vehicles (EVs) will reach US$6.3 billion in 2023. It is unusually varied with average unit prices increasing as larger craft are electrified to improve cost over life, performance, green credentials and for other reasons. The market includes on-water and underwater electric vehicles for inland waterways and the sea. Military electric craft are the largest market sector by value today but e-workboats and other, smaller market subsectors will increase their share of market by value through the coming decade.
Not included in the above figures are pure-electric outboard motors or, for that matter, the hybrid electric outboard motors that will appear at some stage for the highest power and longest range. All these convert small dinghies and larger sailboats and workboats into electric versions. For now, very low power, low cost trolling motors for inland waterways are the main part of this market but several companies are starting to sell high power pure electric outboard motors up to 150 kW/ 180 hp and these permit water skiing on the increasing number of lakes where ICE is banned because of noise and pollution, from Taiwan and India to Germany and the USA. The market for electric outboard motors will rocket from about 60,000 to about 150,000 in 2023. The value market may quadruple or more because of the move to high power versions.
Looking at it another way, on-water craft dominate market value throughout the coming decade but underwater EVs can be exceptionally profitable and they are more likely to employ leading edge technologies, a bellwether of what will happen later on the surface. Hybrids will become more important due to their rapid deployment on the surface in applications where duty cycles or ranges are too onerous for current pure electric technology.
Some of the presumed driving forces behind our forecasts are as follows. Further green laws will be introduced, help leisure and commercial/industrial marine EV sectors to grow. For example, pure-electric craft benefit from laws that increasingly ban polluting alternatives on inland waterways. Plug-in hybrid powertrains will be favoured for the larger seagoing boats to save cost and improve reliability and performance over ones with conventional engines. By contrast, a substantial new market is being created by the advent of powerful, pure-electric outboard motors. Many new forms of expensive underwater craft will also appear. The seagoing vehicle market will be increased particularly by military build-up and a trend to understand the influence of the oceans on weather and to harvest the oceans, including minerals and livestock.
There is enlivened interest in on- and underwater electric craft for many reasons. Hybrid and pure-electric powertrains meet new emission regulations and make new missions possible. Of course, virtually all underwater vehicles are already electric but boatyards need to modernise. Those making other EVs or their components are also getting involved. They seek to expand their business and they find that marine EVs, particularly seagoing versions, are interesting as a market that is often more profitable and more open to innovation than on-road EVs, for example.
In understanding EV markets and trends it is absolutely vital to realise that their adoption is not usually for the popularly understood reasons. In fact, so far, marine EVs are usually financially successful where are bought because they:
28 May 2013 - How is it that some analysts put pure-electric car sales at hundreds of thousands in 2012 whereas others report a mere 60,000 to 65,000? At analysts IDTechEx we feel that a lack of rigor is largely to blame because there are cars homologated as such and car-like vehicles that are not homologated as cars. The contrast is stark. Only 65,000 true pure-electric cars, homologated as such, were sold globally in 2012, very much a failure compared to the 1,522 million hybrid electric cars sold.
Work on the physics of battery technology has won the Global Energy Prize for 2013, the largest energy research grant of its size in the world. It is one of the world’s most prestigious awards recognising achievements globally in energy research and technology. The prize comes with a total US$1.2 million endowment to help recipients fund future research projects.
21 May 2013 - The day is coming when electric vehicles (EVs) land, water and airborne are as much as 80% electronics and electrics if we include the power components. It is even true of hybrids as they shed piton engines and employ ever smaller range extenders, the fuel cell option being fully electric.
There are two reasons for much less mechanics and more electrics and electronics. Firstly, it is how you improve a mechanical part or system. An example of this is the energy harvesting shock absorbers that replace existing ones or are an upgrade with a drop-in electric module from Levant Power. As they have shown, redirecting a little of the 12 kW or so generated by these in a bus or truck can provide much improved electrically active suspension. Levant Power is introducing the world's most advanced fully active, recuperative suspension systems for autos and trucks. Its GenShock technology virtually eliminates all perception of bumps in the road while enabling unprecedented handling.
[img:Cancun%20-%20Pic%201_0.jpg| ]16 May 2013 - Global greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector totalled 4.69 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent in 2010 (the most recent year for which data are available), an increase of 13% over 1990 emissions. By comparison, global carbon dioxide emissions from transport totalled 6.76 billion tons that year, and emissions from electricity and heat production reached 12.48 billion tons, according to Worldwatch Institute's Vital Signs Online service.
Growth in agricultural production between 1990 and 2010 outpaced growth in emissions by a factor of 1.6, demonstrating increased energy efficiency in the agriculture sector.
The three most common gases emitted in agriculture are nitrous oxide, CO2, and methane. Methane is generally produced when organic materials such as crops, livestock feed, or manure decompose anaerobically (without oxygen). Methane accounts for around 50% of total agricultural emissions. Enteric fermentation − the digestion of organic materials by livestock − is the largest source of methane emissions and of agricultural emissions overall.
Nitrous oxide is a by-product generated by the microbial breakdown of nitrogen in soils and manures. Nitrous oxide production is particularly high in cases where the nitrogen available in soils exceeds that required by plants to grow, which often occurs when nitrogen-rich synthetic fertilisers are applied. Nitrous oxide is responsible for around 36% of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions.
Finally, carbon dioxide is released from soils when organic matter decomposes aerobically (with oxygen). The largest source of CO2 emissions within agriculture is the drainage and cultivation of organic soils − soils in wetlands, peatlands, bogs, or fens with high organic material. When these areas are drained for cultivation, organic matter within the soil decomposes at a rapid rate, releasing CO2. This process accounts for around 14% of total agricultural greenhouse gas emissions.
Emissions from enteric fermentation rose by 7.6% worldwide between 1990 and 2010, but regional variation was high. At 51.4% and 28.1%, respectively, Africa and Asia saw their emissions increase, while emissions in Europe and Oceania fell by 48.1% and 16.1%. Europe's significant reduction in emissions parallels the decline in its beef production between 1990 and 2010, but it may also reflect increased use of grains and oils in cattle feed instead of grasses.
"Adding oils or oilseeds to feed can help with digestion and reduce methane emissions. But a shift from a grass-based to a grain- and oilseeds-based diet often accompanies a shift from pastures to concentrated feedlots, which has a range of negative consequences such as water pollution and high fossil fuel consumption," Laura Reynolds, Worldwatch food and agriculture researcher and the study's author, says. "Aside from reducing livestock populations, there is no other clear pathway to climate-friendly meat production from livestock."
Manure that is deposited and left on pastures contributes to global nitrous oxide emissions because of its high nitrogen content. When more nitrogen is added to soil than is needed, soil bacteria convert the extra nitrogen into nitrous oxide and emit it into the atmosphere − a process called nitrification. Emissions from manure on pasture were highest in Asia, Africa, and South America, accounting for a combined 81% of global emissions from this source.
The project’s feasibility, implementation and management was entrusted to consultants Royal Haskoning DHV (RHDHV) − formerly SSI − which after a comprehensive site energy audit of the OBP manufacturing facility determined energy saving opportunities on lighting, HVAC, motors, and water heaters (geysers). After submitting an energy audit report on the status quo and prioritising recommended energy saving opportunities, a project implementation plan was submitted together with a budget, specifications and tender documents to appoint a contractor. Royal Haskoning DHV administered the contract during implementation stage and registered the project with the Eskom integrated demand management (IDM) programme.
Peters, minister of
energy]6 May 2013 - South Africa’s minister of energy Dipuo Peters says in response to the United Nation’s call for sustainable energy for all that in 2005 the country developed and published a national energy efficiency strategy (NEES). The NEES targets to reduce national energy intensity by 12% in 2015. The strategy also sets sector-specific energy efficiency improvement targets of 15% for industry, mining, commercial and public buildings, and residential sectors; 10% for transportation and 9% for power generation.
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